R. Ayanokouzi et al.

[http] request および response ヘッダの表示方法

いろいろなクライアントで http リクエストヘッダとレスポンスヘッダを表示する方法。

wget

wgetrc の読み込みを抑制するには--no-config 、netrc の読み込みを抑制するには --execute=netrc=off。

$ wget --quiet --debug --no-config --execute=netrc=off --output-document /dev/null 'http://www.example.com/'
Setting --no-config (noconfig) to 1
Setting netrc (netrc) to off
Setting --output-document (outputdocument) to /dev/null
DEBUG output created by Wget 1.16 on linux-gnu.

URI encoding = ‘UTF-8’
Caching www.example.com => 93.184.216.34 2606:2800:220:1:248:1893:25c8:1946
Created socket 5.
Releasing 0x0000000000838840 (new refcount 1).

---request begin---
GET / HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: Wget/1.16 (linux-gnu)
Accept: */*
Host: www.example.com
Connection: Keep-Alive

---request end---

---response begin---
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Cache-Control: max-age=604800
Content-Type: text/html
Date: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Etag: "**************"
Expires: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Last-Modified: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Server: ECS (********)
Vary: Accept-Encoding
X-Cache: HIT
x-ec-custom-error: 1
Content-Length: 1270

---response end---
Registered socket 5 for persistent reuse.

curl

curl の後の -q は curlrc の読み込みを抑制する。

$ curl -q --silent --verbose --output /dev/null 'http://www.example.com/'
* Hostname was NOT found in DNS cache
*   Trying 93.184.216.34...
* Connected to www.example.com (93.184.216.34) port 80 (#0)
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.38.0
> Host: www.example.com
> Accept: */*
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Cache-Control: max-age=604800
< Content-Type: text/html
< Date: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
< Etag: "*********"
< Expires: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
< Last-Modified: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
* Server ECS (********) is not blacklisted
< Server: ECS (********)
< Vary: Accept-Encoding
< X-Cache: HIT
< x-ec-custom-error: 1
< Content-Length: 1270
<
{ [data not shown]
* Connection #0 to host www.example.com left intact

Mozilla Firefox

$ export NSPR_LOG_MODULES=nsHttp:5
$ export NSPR_LOG_FILE=/tmp/log.txt
$ firefox -private http://www.example.com/
(snip)
4628[819140]: http request [
4628[819140]:   GET / HTTP/1.1
4628[819140]:   Host: www.example.com
4628[819140]:   User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (******************************) Gecko/******** Firefox/****
4628[819140]:   Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
4628[819140]:   Accept-Language: ja,en-US;q=0.7,en;q=0.3
4628[819140]:   Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
4628[819140]:   Connection: keep-alive
4628[819140]: ]
(snip)
5056[8197d0]: http response [
5056[8197d0]:   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
5056[8197d0]:   Content-Encoding: gzip
5056[8197d0]:   Cache-Control: max-age=604800
5056[8197d0]:   Content-Type: text/html
5056[8197d0]:   Date: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
5056[8197d0]:   Etag: "**************"
5056[8197d0]:   Expires: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
5056[8197d0]:   Last-Modified: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
5056[8197d0]:   Server: ECS (********)
5056[8197d0]:   Vary: Accept-Encoding
5056[8197d0]:   X-Cache: HIT
5056[8197d0]:   x-ec-custom-error: 1
5056[8197d0]:   Content-Length: 606
5056[8197d0]: ]
(snip)

perl

HTTP::Request や HTTP::Response は HTTP::Message のメソッドを継承しているため、これらのオブジェクトに HTTP::Message の dump メソッドが使える。dump は適当にうまいことやってくれるので、ちょっとした確認には便利。

$ cat ./lwp-test.pl
#!/usr/bin/perl
use warnings;
use strict;
use LWP::UserAgent;
use URI;

my $uri = URI->new('http://www.example.org');
my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new();
my $req = HTTP::Request->new('GET' => $uri);
my $res = $ua->request($req);
print $res->request->dump;
print $res->dump;
exit;
$ perl ./lwp-test.pl
GET http://www.example.org
User-Agent: libwww-perl/****

(no content)
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Cache-Control: max-age=604800
Connection: close
Date: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Accept-Ranges: bytes
ETag: "*********"
Server: ECS (********)
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Content-Length: 1270
Content-Type: text/html
Expires: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Last-Modified: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Client-Date: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Client-Peer: **.***.***.**:**
Client-Response-Num: 1
Title: Example Domain
X-Cache: HIT
X-Ec-Custom-Error: 1
X-Meta-Charset: utf-8
X-Meta-Viewport: width=device-width, initial-scale=1

<!doctype html>
<html>
<head>
    <title>Example Domain</title>\n
    <meta charset="utf-8" />
    <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1" />
    <style type="text/css">
    body {
        background-color: #f0f0f2;
        margin: 0;
        padding: 0;
        font-family: "Open Sans", "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;
\40\40\40\40\40\40\40\40
    }
    div {
        width: 600px;
        margin: 5em auto;
 ...
(+ 758 more bytes not shown)

本当にヘッダだけが欲しい場合は HTTP::Headers オブジェクトを使う。HTTP::Request や HTTP::Response オブジェクトから HTTP::Headers オブジェクトを得るには headers メソッド、HTTP::Headers からヘッダを表示するには as_string メソッドを使う。

$ cat ./lwp-test.pl
#!/usr/bin/perl
use warnings;
use strict;
use LWP::UserAgent;
use URI;

my $uri = URI->new('http://www.example.org');
my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new();
my $req = HTTP::Request->new('GET' => $uri);
my $res = $ua->request($req);
print $res->request->headers->as_string, "\n";
print $res->headers->as_string, "\n";
exit;
$ perl ./lwp-test.pl
User-Agent: libwww-perl/****

Cache-Control: max-age=604800
Connection: close
Date: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Accept-Ranges: bytes
ETag: "*********"
Server: ECS (********)
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Content-Length: 1270
Content-Type: text/html
Expires: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Last-Modified: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Client-Date: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Client-Peer: **.***.***.**:**
Client-Response-Num: 1
Title: Example Domain
X-Cache: HIT
X-Ec-Custom-Error: 1
X-Meta-Charset: utf-8
X-Meta-Viewport: width=device-width, initial-scale=1

他のクライアントと違って Client-Date などの Client-XXX が付いている点は注目すべき。これはlwp が自動的につけるものであって、実際に送られてきたものではない。この特殊ヘッダの処理はlwp-dumpのソースが参考になる。

$ lwp-dump --request http://www.example.org/
GET http://www.example.org/
User-Agent: lwp-dump/**** libwww-perl/****

(no content)

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Cache-Control: max-age=604800
Date: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Accept-Ranges: bytes
ETag: "*********"
Server: ECS (********)
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Content-Length: 1270
Content-Type: text/html
Expires: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
Last-Modified: ***, ** *** **** **:**:** GMT
X-Cache: HIT
X-Ec-Custom-Error: 1

<!doctype html>
<html>
<head>
    <title>Example Domain</title>\n
    <meta charset="utf-8" />
    <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1" />
    <style type="text/css">
    body {
        background-color: #f0f0f2;
        margin: 0;
        padding: 0;
        font-family: "Open Sans", "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;
\40\40\40\40\40\40\40\40
    }
    div {
        width: 600px;
        margin: 5em auto;
 ...
(+ 758 more bytes not shown)

また、ヘッダの順番とフィールド名も保存されない点にも注意が必要。

一般

$ LANG=C strace wget ...

自前のサーバの出力を確認する方針

netcat の出力からリクエストヘッダを確認する方針も取れる。

$ nc.openbsd -vv -k -l 127.0.0.1 8080;
Listening on [127.0.0.1] (family 0, port 8080)
Connection from [127.0.0.1] port 8080 [tcp/http-alt] accepted (family 2, sport 51210)
GET / HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: Wget/**** (linux-gnu)
Accept: */*
Host: 127.0.0.1:8080
Connection: Keep-Alive

Connection closed, listening again.
Connection from [127.0.0.1] port 8080 [tcp/http-alt] accepted (family 2, sport 51211)
GET / HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: Wget/**** (linux-gnu)
Accept: */*
Host: 127.0.0.1:8080
Connection: Keep-Alive

Connection closed, listening again.

リファレンス

  1. GNU Wget 1.17.1 Manual
  2. cURL - How To Use
  3. HTTP Logging | MDN
  4. コマンドラインオプション - Mozilla | MDN
  5. LWP - search.cpan.org
  6. lwp-dump - search.cpan.org

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  3. del.icio.us

ChangeLog

  1. Posted: 2008-03-14T01:39:39+09:00
  2. Modified: 2008-03-14T01:39:39+09:00
  3. Generated: 2021-03-31T07:51:36+09:00